Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
200:100,000 live births
FAS occurs when the fetus has been subjected to alcohol during gestation.
General symptoms: Four criteria have to be met for the diagnosis to be made: • the mother has abused or been addicted to alcohol during pregnancy • typical facial features • inhibited growth • central nervous system/brain symptoms
Concentration difficulties, hyperactivity, sleep disorders and learning difficulties are common. Several organs may be affected, e.g. the heart, skeleton, kidneys and eyes. What damage is done depends on when during pregnancy the fetus was subjected to alcohol.
Characteristic facial features are associated with the syndrome. Cleft lip and palate, underbite, and dental development disruptions occur. Some children with FAS have problems with their oral motor function, affecting speech and eating development.
- Early contact with dental services for intensified prophylactic care and oral hygiene information is essential in cases of difficulty with managing dental treatment and tooth brushing.
- Regular check-ups of dental and jaw development. Orthodontist should be consulted when needed.
- Oral motor training and stimulation may be appropriate in cases of eating difficulties, speaking difficulties and reduced saliva control.
- Speech, language and communication training is often warranted.
- The MHC database - The Mun-H-Center database on oral health and orofacial function in rare diseases.
- The Documentation from the Ågrenska national competence centre for rare diseases.